北京高压科学研究中心
Center for High Pressure Science &Technology Advanced Research

Dr. Ho-kwang (David) Mao


Dr. Ho-kwang Mao, the world eminent scientist in high pressure. He graduated from the Department of Geology, National Taiwan University, in 1963 and in 1968, he received his Ph.D. at the University of Rochester, New York. After that, he worked in Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington.  He was elected a follow of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, in 1993, a member of Chinese Academy of sciences in 1996, a member of the Royal Society, UK in 2008 and a member of Academia Sinica, Taiwan in 1994.  He is senior researcher of Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington currently.



Education:

Ph.D. (1968), M.S. (1966) University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA

B.S. (1963) National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan


Current Positions:

Staff Scientist (1972-), Postdoc and Research Associate (1968-72), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington

Director (2009-) Center for Energy Frontier Research Under Extreme Environments (EFree), U. S. Department of Energy

Director (2012-) Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research (HPSTAR), China

Einstein Chair Professor, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Honorary Professorship: College of Physics, Jilin University (2001-); Physics Department, Harbin Institute of Technology (2009-)


Honors & awards:

2008, Foreign Fellow of the Royal Society of London

1996, Foreign Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

1994, Academician of the Academia Sinica, Taiwan

1993, Member of the United States National Academy of Science

1996, Fellow of the Geochemical Society

1994, Fellow of the American Physical Society

1987, Fellow of the American Geophysical Union

1979, Fellow of the Mineralogical Society of America

2007, the Inge Lehmann Medal, from the American Geophysical Union

2005, the Balzan Prize for Mineral Physics (with Russell J. Hemley)

2005, the Gregori Aminoff Prize, from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

2005, the Roebling Medal, from the Mineralogical Society of America

1990, the Arthur L. Day Prize, from the United States National Academy of Sciences

1989, the P. W. Bridgman Award, from the AIRAPT International

1979, the Mineralogical Society of America Award


Research Areas

Chemistry of the Earth’s Mantle and Core

Phase transition, melting

Element partitioning

Oxidation, reduction, hydration, differentiation


Deep Earth Geophysics

Electronic and magnetic transitions

Elasticity

Rheology

Geodynamics


Physics and Chemistry of Giant Planetary Interiors

Molecular compounds

Juvian seismology and interior structure

Pioneering High Pressure Technology

Multimegabar pressure

High T (7000 K) and low T (0.035 K) at simultaneous high P

Maximum sample volume at high P

In-situ measurements at high P-T: Brillouin, Raman, infrared, and optical absorption spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, NMR

High P x-ray diffraction and spectroscopy using synchrotron facilities

High P study at neutron facilities


High Pressure Condensed-Matter Physics

Dense hydrogen

Pressure-induced metallization

Free electron gas

Strongly correlated systems

Superconductivities


High Pressure Chemistry

Chemical reactivity and affinity

Nitrides, and oxides

van der Waals compounds

Bonding and stereochemistry

Transition element chemistry


High Pressure Crystallography

Ionic radii and atomic coordination

Amorphous structure

Pressure amorphization

Incommensurate structures


High Pressure Materials Science

Hydrogen storage

Giant single-crystal diamond growth by CVD method

Superhard materials

High-energy density materials

Nano-materials

Bio-materials


Representative Publications

1. Mao HK & Bell PM (1972) Electrical conductivity and the red shift of absorption in olivine and spinel at high pressure. Science 176:403.


2. Mao HK & Bell PM (1976) High-pressure physics: the 1-megabar mark on the ruby R1 static pressure scale. Science 191:851; Mao HK & Bell PM (1978) High-pressure physics: sustained static generation to 1.36 to 1.72 megabars. Science 200:1145.

3. Mao HK & Bell PM (1979) Observations of hydrogen at room temperature (25oC) and high pressure (to 500 kilobars). Science 203:1004.

4. Mao HK,Bell PM,& Hemley RJ (1985) Ultrahigh pressures: optical observations and Raman measurements of hydrogen and deuterium to 1.47 Mbar. Phys. Rev. Lett. 55:99;Goncharov AF, Gregoryanz E, Hemley RJ, & Mao HK (2001) Spectroscopic studies of the vibrational and electronic properties of solid hydrogen to 285 GPa. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA98:14234.


5. Mao HK, Hemley RJ, Wu Y, Jephcoat AP, Finger LW, Zha CS, & Bassett WA (1988) High-pressure phase diagram and equation of state of solid helium from single-crystal x-ray diffraction to 23.3 GPa. Phys. Rev. Lett. 60:2649; Mao HK, Jephcoat AP, Hemley RJ, Finger LW, Zha CS, Hazen RM, & Cox DE (1988) Synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements of single-crystal hydrogen to 26.5 GPa. Science 239:1131.

6. MaoHK, Wu Y, Hemley RJ, Chen LC, Shu JF, & Finger LW (1989) X-raydiffraction to 302 Gigapascals: high-pressure crystal structure of cesiumiodide. Science 246:649; Mao HK, WuY, Hemley RJ, Chen LC, Shu JF, Finger LW, & Cox DE (1990)Highpressure
phase transition and equation of state of CsI. Phys. Rev. Lett. 64:1749.

7. MaoHK & Hemley RJ (1991) New optical transitions in diamond at ultrahighpressures. Nature 351:721.

8. MaoHK & Hemley RJ (1994) Ultrahigh-pressure transitions in solid hydrogen.Rev. Mod. Phys. 66:671.

9. MaoHK, Shen G, & Hemley RJ (1997) Multivariant dependence of Fe-Mgpartitioning in the lower mantle. Science 278:2098.

10. MaoHK, Shu J, Shen G, Hemley RJ, Li B, & Singh AK (1998) Elasticity andrheology of iron above 220 GPa and the nature of the Earth's inner core. Nature396:741; Wenk H-R, Matthies S, Hemley RJ, MaoHK, & Shu J (2000) The plastic deformation of iron at pressures of the Earth's inner core. Nature 405:1044; Merkel S, Goncharov AF, Mao HK, Gillet P, & Hemley RJ(2000) Raman spectroscopy of iron to 152 gigapascals: Implications for Earth'sinner core. Science 288:1626.

11. MaoHK, Xu J, Struzhkin VV, Shu J, Hemley RJ, Sturhahn W, Hu M, Alp E, VocadloL, Alfè D, Price GD, Gillan MJ, Schwoerer-Böhning M, Häusermann D, Eng P, ShenG, Giefers H, Lübbers R, & Wortmann G (2001) Phonon density of states ofiron up to 153 GPa. Science 292:914; Lin J-F, Sturhahn W, Zhao J, Shen G, Mao HK, & Hemley RJ (2005) Soundvelocities of hot dense iron: Birch's law revisited. Science 308:1892.

12. Struzhkin VV, Eremets MI, Gan W, Mao HK, & Hemley RJ (2002)Superconductivity in dense lithium. Science 298:1213; Eremets MI, Struzhkin VV,Hemley RJ, & Mao HK (2001)Superconductivity in boron. Science 293:272; Struzhkin VV, Hemley RJ, Mao HK, & Timofeev YA (1997)Superconductivity at 10 to 17 K in compressed sulfur. Nature 390:382.

13. Mao WL, Mao HK, Goncharov AF, Struzhkin VV, Guo Q, Hu J, Shu J, Hemley RJ, SomayazuluM, & Zhao Y (2002) Hydrogen clusters in clathrate hydrate. Science297:2247; Mao WL & Mao HK (2004)Hydrogen storage in molecular compounds. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101:708;Struzhkin VV, Militzer B, Mao WL, Mao HK,& Hemley RJ (2007) Hydrogen storage in molecular clathrates. Chem. Rev.107:4133.

14. Mao WL, Mao HK, Eng P, Trainor T, Newville M, Kao CC, Heinz DL, Shu J, MengY, & Hemley RJ (2003) Bonding changes in compressed superhard graphite.Science 302:425; Meng Y, Mao HK, EngP, Trainor T, Newville M, Hu MY, Kao CC, Häusermann D, & Hemley RJ (2004)BN under compression: the formation of sp3 bonding. Nature Mater. 3:111; Lee SK,Eng PJ, Mao HK, Meng Y, Newville M, HuMY, & Shu J (2005) Probing of bonding changes in B2O3 glasses at highpressure with inelastic X-ray scattering. Nature Mater. 4:851; Lee SK, Eng PJ, Mao HK, Meng Y, & Shu J (2007)Structure of alkali borate glasses at high pressure: B and Li K-edge inelasticx-ray scattering study. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98:105502.

15. Mao WL, Mao HK, Meng Y, Eng P, Hu MY, Chow P, Cai YQ, Shu J, & HemleyRJ (2006) X-ray-induced dissociation of H2O and formation of an O2-H2alloy at high pressure. Science 314:636; Chou I-M, Blank J, Goncharov AF, Mao HK, & Hemley RJ (1998) In situobservations of a high-pressure phase of H2O ice. Science 281:809; Goncharov AF,Struzhkin VV, Somayazulu M, Hemley RJ, & Mao HK (1996) Compression of ice to 210 GPa: Evidence for asymmetric hydrogen bonded phase. Science 273:218.

16. Young AF, Sanloup C, Gregoryanz E, ScandoloS, Hemley RJ, & Mao HK (2006)Synthesis of novel transition metal nitrides IrN2 and OsN2. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96:155501;Gregoryanz E, Sanloup C, Somayazulu M, Badro J, Fiquet G, Hemley RJ, & Mao HK (2004) Synthesis andcharacterization of a binary noble metal nitride. Nature Mater. 3:294; Eremets
MI, Hemley RJ, Mao HK, &Gregoryanz E (2001) Semiconducting non-molecular nitrogen up to 240 GPa and its
low-pressure stability. Nature 411:170.

17. Mao WL, Mao HK, Sturhahn W, Zhao J, Prakapenka VB, Meng Y, Shu J, Fei Y, &Hemley RJ (2006) Iron-rich post-perovskite and the origin of ultralow-velocityzones. Science 312:564; Merkel S, Kubo A, Miyagi L, Speziale S, Duffy TS, Mao HK, & Wenk H-R (2006) Plasticdeformation of MgGeO3 post-perovskite at lower mantle pressures.Science 311:644; Mao WL,Shen G, Prakapenka VB, Meng Y, Campbell AL, Heinz DL, Shu J, Hemley RJ, &Mao HK (2004) Ferromagnesianpost-perovskite silicates in the D" layer of the Earth. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.USA 101:15867; Mao WL, Meng Y, Shen G, Prakapenka VB, Campbell AJ, Heinz DL, ShuJ, Caracas R, Cohen RE, Fei Y, Hemley RJ, & Mao HK (2005) Iron-rich silicates in the Earth's D" layer. Proc.Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 102:9751; Hirose K, Fei Y, Ma Y, & Mao HK (1999) The fate of subducted basaltic crust in the Earth'slower mantle. Nature 397:53.

18. Ahart M, Somayazulu M, Cohen RE, Ganesh P,Dera P, Mao HK, Hemley RJ, Yang R, LiermannP, & Wu Z (2008) Origin of morphotropic phase boundaries in ferroelectrics.Nature 451:545.

19. Ding Y, Haskel D, Tseng Y-C, Kaneshita E,van Veenendaal M, Mitchell J, Sinogeikin SV, Prakapenka V, & Mao HK (2009) Pressure-induced magnetictransition in manganite (La0.75Ca0.25MnO3) Phys. Rev. Lett. 102:237201; Ding Y,Haskel D, Ovchinnikov SG, Tseng Y-C, Orlov YS, Lang JC, & Mao HK (2008) Novel pressure-induced magnetic transition in magnetite (Fe3O4). Phys. Rev. Lett. 100:045508;Struzhkin VV, Mao HK, Lin J-F, HemleyRJ, Tse JS, Ma Y, Hu MY, Chow P, & Kao C-C (2006) Valence band x-rayemission spectra of compressed germanium. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96:137402; Lin J-F, StruzhkinVV, Jacobsen SD, Hu MY, Chow P, Kung J, Liu H, Mao HK,& Hemley RJ (2005) Spin transition of iron in magnesiowüstite in the Earth's lower mantle. Nature 436:377.

20. Somayazulu M,Dera P,Goncharov AF,Gramsch SA,Liermann P,Yang W,Liu Z,Mao HK,& Hemley RJ (2010) Pressure-induced bonding and compound formation inxenon–hydrogen solids. Nature Chem. 2:50; Somayazulu MS,Finger LW,Hemley RJ,& Mao HK (1996) New high-pressure compounds in methane-hydrogen mixtures. Science 271:1400.

21. Chen X-J,Struzhkin VV,Yu Y,Goncharov AF,Lin C-T,Mao HK,& Hemley RJ (2010) Enhancement of superconductivity by pressure-driven competition in electronic order. Nature 466:950; Liu Q,Yu X,Wang X,Deng Z,Lv Y,Zhu J,Zhang S,LiuH,Yang W,Wang L,Mao HK,Shen G,Lu Z-Y,Ren Y,Chen Z,Lin Z,Zhao Y,& Jin C (2011) Pressure-induced isostructural phase transition and correlation of FeAs coordination with the superconducting properties of 111-type Na1-xFeAs. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133:7892.

22. Mao WL,Wang L,Ding Y,Yang W,Liu W,Kim DY,Luo W,Ahuja R,Meng Y,Sinogeikin S,Shu J,& Mao HK (2010) Distortions and stabilization of simple-cubic calciumat high pressure and low temperature. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 107:9965;Arapan S,Mao HK,& Ahuja R (2008) Prediction of incommensurate crystal structure in Ca at high pressure. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.USA 105:20627.

23. MaoHK,Shirley E,Ding Y,Eng P,Cai Y,Chow P,Xiao Y,Shu J,Hemley RJ,Kao C,& Mao WL (2010) Excitonic structure of crystalline 4He at high prssures. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105:186404.

24. Zeng Q,Sheng H,Ding Y,Wang L,Yang W,Jiang J-Z,Mao WL,& Mao HK (2011) Long-range topological order in metallic glass.Science 332:1404; Zeng Q-s,Ding Y,Mao WL,Yang W,Sinogeikin SV,Shu J,Mao HK,& Jiang JZ (2010) Origin ofpressure-induced polyamorphism in Ce75Al25 metallic glass. Phys. Rev. Lett.104:105702.

25. Guillaume CL,Gregoryanz E,Degtyareva O,McMahon MI,Evans S,Hanfland M,Guthrie M,Sinogeikin SV,& Mao HK (2011) Cold melting and solid structures of dense lithium.Nature Phys. 7:211; Lazicki A,Goncharov AF,StruzhkinVV,Cohen RE,Liu Z,Gregoryanz E,Guillaume C,Mao HK,& Hemley RJ (2009) Anomalousoptical and electronic properties of dense sodium. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA106:6525; Gregoryanz E,Degtyareva O,Somayazulu M,Hemley RJ,& Mao HK (2005) Melting ofdense sodium. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94:185502.